Leaving Examination Topic #10
- kino - první kamera, první kino
- černobílý a němý film - představitelé, filmy
- barevný a mluvený film 40. a 50. let
- současná generace - režiséři, herci a filmy
- filmová studia
- kreslený film
- jak vzniká film
- divadlo - historie českého divadla, čeští dramatici
- rozvoj divadla v UK a USA (hlavně Londýn a NY - Broadway) + 2 dramatici s jejich díly
- vybraný film, herec ...
History of cinema
- moving images were popular in the past - in China there were "shadow plays" 5 000 years ago.
- cinema became possible when there was a new idea - photography
- kinetoscope - by Edison - it projected moving pictures (it was noisy, of very low quality and only one person could watch it)
- the men who produced THE FIRST CINEMA were French brothers Louis and Auguste Lumiére - on 28 December 1895 in a Paris cafe (the first film was "Arrival of the train at the station")
- Hollywood was established in 1912
- the first films were black-and-white and silent
- recorded sound ended the silent era in 1927 (the first film "The Jazz Singer")
- colour movie appeared in the 1910s, the first full-length was in 1922 and one of the best-known "Gone with the Wind"
- 70mm films
- special effects made by computers and other modern technologies
History of Czech cinemas
- 15 July 1896 - the first projection in Karlovy Vary (Lumiére cinematograph)
- 19 July 1898 - the first Czech cinematograph by Jan Kříženecký
- the first cinema opened Viktor Ponrepo (aka Dismas Šlambor) in 1907
- the first Czech actor - Josef Šváb-Malostranský
- the first Czech films - "Dostaveníčko v mlýnici, Výstavní párkař a lepič plakátů, Pláč a smích, Žofínská plovárna"
- cinema's first cartoon character was Gertie the Dinosaur in 1909
- the greatest cartoonmaker was Walt Disney. He produce his first black-and-white Mickey Mouse cartoon in 1928
- his first full-length film was "The Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" from 1937
- computer cartoons - "Toy Story" , "Bug's Life", "Shrek" or "Finding Nemo"
Most of the cinemas offer film show twice a day all the year round. On Saturday or Sunday afternoon they have a special film for children.
Special kinds of cinema
- Art Cinema (art films and the highly regarded films)
- Summer Cinema (it is in the open air)
- Non stop Cinema
- Nowadays the most popular are Multi-Cinemas - films are showed all the day.
Kinds of films
comedies, psychological dramas, films about young people, romances, tragedies, action films, science fictions, etc.
- G = General Audience – all ages admitted
- PG = Parental Guidance suggested – some material not suitable for children
- PG-13 = Parents strongly cautioned – some material may be inappropriate for children under 13
- R = Restricted – under 17 requires accompanying parent or adult guardian
- NC-17 – no one 17 and under admitted
- Cannes, Venetia (Benátky), Karlovy Vary, Berlin etc. - films are awarded at these festivals.
- Oscar - the award of American Association of Film (the best films: Ben Hur, Titanic and the Lord of the Rings - 11 Oscars) in our country films are awarded The Czech Lion
- Francis Ford COPPOLA (7. 4. 1939) – Finian's Rainbow, The Godfather, The Godfather – Part II, The Godfather – Part III, The Cotton Club, Dracula
- Věra CHYTILOVÁ - Hra o jablko, Panelstory, Kalamita, Šašek a královna
- Chris COLUMBUS - Mrs. Doubtfire, Gremlins, Home Alone, Home Alone: Lost in New York, Stepmom
- Miloš FORMAN - One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Hair, Amadeus, Valmont, People vs Larry Flint
- Alfred HITCHCOCK – Jamaica Inn, Rear Window, Psycho, The Birds
- Roman POLANSKI (18. 8. 1933) – Dance of the Vampires, Rosemary's Baby, Chinatown, Bitter Moon
- Sydney POLLACK – Three Days of the Condor, The Way We Were, Out of Africa, Havana, The Firm They Shoot Horses, Don't They?
- Ivan REITMAN (Czechoslovak) – Legal Eagles, Six Days, Seven Nights, Beethoven, Beethoven 2nd, Twins, Ghostbusters I, II, Kindergarten Cop
- Steven SPIELBERG (18. 12. 1947) – Jaws, Raiders of the Lost Arc, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, E.T. The Extra Terrestrial, Hook, Jurassic Park, Schindler's List, Saving Private Ryan
- James Cameron – The Abyss, Titanic
- Oliver Stone - Born on the Fourth of July
- 14 nominees - films ALL ABOUT EVE, TITANIC and LA LA LAND
- 11 awards - BEN HUR, TITANIC and LORD OF THE RINGS
- 4 awards - Katharine HEPBURN
- 3 awards - Jack NICHOLSON , Ingrid Bergman, Walter Brennan
- Czech films awarded Oscars - OSTŘE SLEDOVANÉ VLAKY, OBCHOD NA KORZE, and KOLJA
- Columbia Pictures Entertainment
- Walt Disney Pictures (Dumbo, Pinocchio, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Lady and the Tramp, Mary Poppins, The Little Mermaid, Toy Story)
- 20th Century Fox
- United Artists
- Warner Bros
- Universal Pictures
- Dreamworks (established by Steven Spielberg)
- Pixar (Toy Story, Bug's Life)
- Hanna and Barbera
- AB Barrandov (established in 1920)
How a film is made
- the idea - this usually come from either the director or the writer
- the script - a film script is developed in three stages. First there's a short outline of the story, then a longer, more detailed treatment, and finally a complete script.
- finance - finding monea is often the hardest thing
- pre-production - it includes casting, finding location, building sets and making costumes
- production - it is the actual shooting of the film
- post-production - this is when the film is edited, has the soundtrack added to it and is dubbed or subtitled for foreign audience
- marketing - there are many ways to do this. They include poster campaigns, advertising, cinema trailers ot interviews by the film stars
- release - finally, the film is given certificate and released
- Foreign films can be dubbed , or they are subtitled.
- Making film is expensive. On the average, it costs 36 million dollars to produce a film. Some of this goes to pay the salaries of well-known movie stars, and large sums can be spent on special effects like computer-generated imagery (CGI). Marketing the movie to the public may cost another 17 million dollars or more.
- Big cities have permanent theatres (Prague - The National Theatre, Vinohrady Theatre, Činoherní klub, Theatre Fidlovačka, Brno - Janáček Theatre, Mahen Theatre, Ostrava - The National Moravian-Silesian Theatre etc.)
- Small towns provide little opportunity to see theatre performance - theatre companies come to give a performance there either in a town theatre or in a cultural house
- Theatre: you can sit in the boxes, dress circle, the upper circle, or balcony
- The heart of the theatrical life in England is London (especially West End) - about 60 theatres - only 2 are prosperous: The National Theatre established by Sir Lawrence Olivier in 1963 and The Royal Shakespeare's Company
- The American theatre came into existence in the 20th century. Amateur groups all over America started to perform new plays. They often influenced commercial theatres on Broadway. In New York there are about 30 theatres.
- Oscar Wilde (Lady Windermere's Fan, Importance of Being Earnest = Jak je důležité míti filipa)
- George Bernard Shaw (Caesar and Cleopatra, Pygmalion)
- Samuel Beckett (Waiting for Godot).
- Among the most famous American playwrights we can rank Eugene O'Neil (Marco Millions) - was a member of the Washington Dramatic Group, Tennessee Williams (Cat on a Hot Tin Roof), and Arthur Miller (Death of a Salesman)
The Czech theatrical history
- The Company of the Czech King (Frederick of Palatine)
- The Company of the Czech Queen (his wife Elizabeth's group - they both presented Shakespeare's plays. He was son-in-law of the English King James I)
- The defeat of the Czech Protestant's Army on the White Mountain was the fatal for Czech independence and cultural life and theatre as well.
- the Czech National Revival from the turn of the 18 and 19 centuries (národní obrození)
- the Royal Imperial Patriotic Theatre - popularly known as "Shanty" (Bouda)
- the Czech Stands' Theatre (i. e. Nostic Theatre, now Tyl Theatre)
- the National Theatre. 1868 foundation stone, 1883 opening
- famous translators of Shakespeare's plays: J. K. Tyl (from German). J. V. Sládek (from English)
The USA theaters (there is used the word theater instead of theatre in American English)
- New York is the American theatre capital. The main theatre district is based around part of the long avenue called Broadway. Ticket price can be at 60 dollars or more.
- Smaller or more experimental plays are shown off-Broadway, in smaller theatres around Manhattan.
- If a play is off-off-Broadway, it is in a theatre that is very small and out of the way.
- The prize for Broadway playwrights, actors, directors etc. is called Tony Awards.
The British theatres
- from the 1840s many theatres were built – the Coliseum (opened in 1904, for 2,558 viewers) – most opera is staged now, Royal National Theatre, Royal Shakespeare Theatre (playing at the Barbican Centre) – both show traditional and contemporary plays, Victorian and Edwardian theatres stage more conventional production and long-running musicals (Andrew Lloyd Webber's Phantom of the Opera, Cats and les Misérables. Covent Garden's Royal Opera House is rebuilding.
The Middle Ages
Around 500 A.D., western civilization began to emerge from the period known as "The Dark Ages," the time when invading hordes of Vandals, Huns, and Visigoths overran Europe and brought an end to the Roman Empire. For the next ten centuries, the newly emerging Christian Church would dominate Europe, administering justice, instigating "Holy" Crusades against the East, establishing Universities, and generally dictating the destiny of music, art and literature. During this time, Pope Gregory I is generally believed to have collected and codified the music known as Gregorian Chant, which was the approved music of the Church. Much later, the University at Notre Dame in Paris saw the creation of a new kind of music called organum. Secular music was sung all over Europe by the troubadours and trouvères of France. And it was during the Middle Ages that western culture saw the arrival of the first great name in music, Guillaume de Machaut.
Generally considered to be from ca.1420 to 1600, the Renaissance (which literally means "rebirth") was a time of great cultural awakening and a flowering of the arts, letters, and sciences throughout Europe. With the rise of humanism, sacred music began for the first time to break free of the confines of the Church, and a school of composers trained in the Netherlands mastered the art of polyphony in their settings of sacred music. One of the early masters of the Flemish style was Josquin des Prez. These polyphonic traditions reached their culmination in the unsurpassed works of Giovanni da Palestrina.
Of course, secular music thrived during this period, and instrumental and dance music was performed in abundance, if not always written down. It was left for others to collect and notate the wide variety of irrepressible instrumental music of the period. The late Renaissance also saw in England the flourishing of the English madrigal, the best known of which were composed by such masters as John Dowland, William Byrd, Thomas Morley and others.
The Baroque Age
Named after the popular ornate architectural style of the time, the Baroque period (ca.1600 to 1750) saw composers beginning to rebel against the styles that were prevalent during the High Renaissance. This was a time when the many monarchies of Europe vied in outdoing each other in pride, pomp and pageantry. Many monarchs employed composers at their courts, where they were little more than servants expected to churn out music for any desired occasions. The greatest composer of the period, Johann Sebastian Bach, was such a servant. Yet the best composers of the time were able to break new musical ground, and in so doing succeeded in creating an entirely new style of music. It was during the early part of the seventeenth century that the genre of opera was first created by a group of composers in Florence, Italy, and the earliest operatic masterpieces were composed by Claudio Monteverdi. The instrumental concerto became a staple of the Baroque era, and found its strongest exponent in the works of the Venetian composer Antonio Vivaldi. Harpsichord music achieved new heights, due to the works of such masters as Domenico Scarlatti and others. Dances became formalized into instrumental suites and were composed by virtually all composers of the era. But vocal and choral music still reigned supreme during this age, and culminated in the operas and oratorios of German-born composer George Frederic Handel.
The Classical Period
From roughly 1750 to 1820, artists, architects, and musicians moved away from the heavily ornamented styles of the Baroque and the Rococo, and instead embraced a clean, uncluttered style they thought reminiscent of Classical Greece. The newly established aristocracies were replacing monarchs and the church as patrons of the arts, and were demanding an impersonal, but tuneful and elegant music. Dances such as the minuet and the gavotte were provided in the forms of entertaining serenades and divertimenti.
At this time the Austrian capital of Vienna became the musical centre of Europe, and works of the period are often referred to as being in the Viennese style. Composers came from all over Europe to train in and around Vienna, and gradually they developed and formalized the standard musical forms that were to predominate European musical culture for the next several decades. A reform of the extravagance of Baroque opera was undertaken by Christoph von Gluck. Johann Stamitz contributed greatly to the growth of the orchestra and developed the idea of the orchestral symphony. The Classical period reached its majestic culmination with the masterful symphonies, sonatas, and string quartets by the three great composers of the Viennese school: Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven. During the same period, the first voice of the burgeoning Romantic musical ethic can be found in the music of Viennese composer Franz Schubert.
The Romantic Era
As the many socio-political revolutions of the late eighteenth-century established new social orders and new ways of life and thought, so composers of the period broke new musical ground by adding a new emotional depth to the prevailing classical forms. Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth-century (from ca. 1820 to 1900), artists of all kinds became intent in expressing their subjective, personal emotions. "Romanticism" derives its name from the romances of medieval times -- long poems telling stories of heroes and chivalry, of distant lands and far away places, and often of unattainable love. The romantic artists are the first in history to give to them the name by which they are identified.
The earliest Romantic composers were all born within a few years of each other in the early years of the nineteenth century. These include the great German masters Felix Mendelssohn and Robert Schumann ; the Polish poet of the piano Frédéric Chopin; the French genius Hector Berlioz ; and the greatest pianist showman in history, the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt.
During the early nineteenth century, opera composers such as Carl Maria von Weber turned to German folk stories for the stories of their operas, while the Italians looked to the literature of the time and created what is known as Bel canto opera (literally "beautiful singing"). Later in the century, the field of Italian opera was dominated by Giuseppe Verdi, while German opera was virtually monopolized by Richard Wagner. During the nineteenth century, composers from non-Germanic countries began looking for ways in which they might express the musical soul of their homelands. Many of these Nationalist composers turned to indigenous history and legends as plots for their operas, and to the popular folk melodies and dance rhythms of their homelands as inspiration for their symphonies and instrumental music. Others developed a highly personal harmonic language and melodic style which distinguishes their music from that of the Austro-Germanic traditions.
The continued modification and enhancement of existing instruments, plus the invention of new ones, led to the further expansion of the symphony orchestra throughout the century. Taking advantage of these new sounds and new instrumental combinations, the late Romantic composers of the second half of the nineteenth-century created richer and ever larger symphonies, ballets, and concertos. Two of the giants of this period are the German-born Johannes Brahms and the great Russian melodist Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
The 20th century
By the turn of the century and for the next few decades, artists of all nationalities were searching for exciting and different modes of expression. Composers such as Arnold Schoenberg explored unusual and unorthodox harmonies and tonal schemes. French composer Claude Debussy was fascinated by Eastern music and the whole-tone scale, and created a style of music named after the movement in French painting called Impressionism. Hungarian composer Béla Bartók continued in the traditions of the still strong Nationalist movement and fused the music of Hungarian peasants with twentieth century forms. Avant-garde composers such as Edgard Varèse explored the manipulation of rhythms rather than the usual melodic/harmonic schemes. The tried-and-true genre of the symphony, albeit somewhat modified by this time, attracted such masters as Gustav Mahler and Dmitri Shostakovich, while Igor Stravinsky gave full rein to his manipulation of kaleidoscopic rhythms and instrumental colours throughout his extremely long and varied career.
While many composers throughout the twentieth-century experimented in new ways with traditional instruments (such as the "prepared piano" used by American composer John Cage), many of the twentieth-century's greatest composers, such as Italian opera composer Giacomo Puccini and the Russian pianist/composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, remained true to the traditional forms of music history. In addition to new and eclectic styles of musical trends, the twentieth century boasts numerous composers whose harmonic and melodic styles an average listener can still easily appreciate and enjoy
Jazz has been called America's classical music, and for good reason. Along with the blues, its forefather, it is one of the first truly indigenous music to develop in America, yet its unpredictable, risky ventures into improvisation gave it critical cache with scholars that the blues lacked. At the outset, jazz was dance music, performed by swinging big bands. Soon, the dance elements faded into the background and improvisation became the key element of the music. As the genre evolved, the music split into a number of different styles, from the speedy, hard-hitting rhythms of be-bop and the laid-back, mellow harmonies of cool jazz to the jittery, atonal forays of free jazz and the earthy grooves of soul jazz. What tied it all together was a foundation in the blues, a reliance on group interplay and unpredictable improvisation. Throughout the years, and in all the different styles, those are the qualities that defined jazz.
Blues is about tradition and personal expression. At its core, the blues has remained the same since its inception. Most blues feature simple, usually three-chord, and progressions and have simple structures that are open to endless improvisations, both lyrical and musical. The blues grew out of African spirituals and work songs. In the late 1800s, southern African-Americans passed the songs down orally, and they collided with American folk and country from the Appalachians. New hybrids appeared by each region, but all of the recorded blues from the early 1900s are distinguished by simple, rural acoustic guitars and pianos. After World War II, the blues began to fragment, with some musicians holding on to acoustic traditions and others taking it to jazzier territory. However, most bluesmen followed Muddy Waters' lead and played the blues on electric instruments. From that point on, the blues continued to develop in new directions — particularly on electric instruments — or it has been preserved as an acoustic tradition.
Rock & Roll is often used as a generic term, but its sound is rarely predictable. From the outset, when the early rockers merged country and blues, rock has been defined by its energy, rebellion and catchy hooks, but as the genre aged, it began to shed those very characteristics, placing equal emphasis on craftsmanship and pushing the boundaries of the music. As a result, everything from Chuck Berry's pounding, three-chord rockers and the sweet harmonies of the Beatles to the soulful pleas of Otis Redding and the jarring, atonal white noise of Sonic Youth has been categorized as "rock." That's accurate — rock & roll had a specific sound and image for only a handful of years. For most of its life, rock has been fragmented, spinning off new styles and variations every few years, from Brill Building Pop and heavy metal to dance-pop and grunge. And that's only natural for a genre that began its life as a fusion of styles.
Country music is about tradition, yet its simple form lends itself to endless variations on similar themes. Like blues — the two genres often shared themes, melodies and songs — country is a simple music at its core. Most of its songs are built around three chords and a plain melody, but these forms are so basic, they allow for many different styles, from the gritty sounds of honky tonk to the jazzy improvisations of Western Swing. Country music grew out of American Southern folk music, both Appalachian and blues, and old-time country was simple and folky, with just guitars and fiddles. As the genre progressed, old time music evolved into the rhythmic guitar-and-fiddle driven traditional country that became the foundation of modern country music, from honky tonk and Western Swing to the pop-oriented Countrypolitan and rock-inflected Bakersfield Sound.