Leaving Examination Topic #6
- poloha, rozloha, počet obyvatel
- historie - praotec Čech, Libuše a Přemysl, Karel IV., Habsburkové, novodobá historie od roku 1918 resp. 1993
- základní zeměpisné údaje (umět s mapou)
- města a zajímavá místa
- moje rodné místo popř. moje oblíbené místo
- co bych doporučil návštěvníkům naší země
- slavní Češi
- area: 78,864 sq km
- population: 10 million
- administrative division: 14 regions
- head of the state: President, elected for a five-year period by inhabitants. The current president is Miloš Zeman.
- legislative power: Parliament of the Czech Republic, which comprises two Houses – the Chamber of Deputies (200 deputies, elected for 4 years) and the Senate (81 senators, elected for 6 years, one-third of whom face an election every two years)
- neighbours: Poland, Slovakia, Austria, Germany
- mountains: the Šumava range, the Czech Forest, the Ore Mountains, the Jizerské Mountains, the Giant Mountains, the Eagle Mountains, the Bohemian - Moravian Highland, the Ash Mountains and the Beskydy
- rivers: the Vltava (Moldavia), the Elbe (flowing into the North Sea), the Oder (flowing into the Baltic Sea), the Morava (flowing into the Danube abd then to the Black Sea)
- raw materials: coal (Ostrava coal basin, Sokolov basin), kaolin, stone, limestone.
The CR is traditionally an industrial country - engineering, chemical, food, textile, or metallurgy.
History: it has been inhabited by Slavonic tribes since the 5th century AD. The Czech princes and later kings played an important role in Central Europe - during the reign of Charles IV and his son Wenceslas IV the Czech Kingdom became also the centre of the Holy Roman Empire, and Prague grew into one of the largest metropolia of that era (in 1348 the Charles University was founded) After the Battle on the White Mountain followed 300 years of “Germanization”. In 1918 Czechoslovakia was established. In 1993 Czechoslovakia split into 2 sovereign states
The CR consists of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia
- capital: Prague
- other cities: Brno, Ostrava, Plzeň, Liberec, České Budějovice, Hradec Králové, Olomouc, Zlín
- places of interest: spas Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně, Karlova Studánka, historical towns: Český Krumlov, Jindřichův Hradec, many beautiful castles: Karlštejn, Hluboká, Lednice etc.
- the highest peak – Sněžka Mountain (1,602 m)
- the lowest point – the Elbe River leaving the Czech Republic (115 m)
- the largest dam lake – Lipno (4,870 hectares)
- the largest fishing pond – Rožmberk (489 hectares)
- the largest natural lake – Černé jezero – Black Lake (18,4 hectares)
- the largest national park – Šumava (685,2 square kilometres)
- the largest preserve – Beskydy (1,160 square kilometres)
- the smallest village – Blahoňov (near Žďár nad Sázavou) – 5 inhabitants
Czech Heritage UNESCO
- PRAGUE - historical downtown - since 1992. Each part of Prague: Malá Strana (Lesser Town), Hradčany, the Old and New Towns were built from the 10th century onwards.
- ČESKÝ KRUMLOV - historical downtown - since 1992. This town was built on a meandering bend in the River Vltava around the originally Gothic castle from the 13th century. The town together with the castle complex and chateau have retained its exemplary mediaeval character for more than five centuries.
- TELČ - historical downtown - since 1992. Renaissance and Baroque burghers' houses are surrounded by a protective system of ponds. The Gothic castle was rebuilt in the Renaissance style in the 16th century.
- ŽĎÁR NAD SÁZAVOU - Pilgrimage Church of St Jan of Nepomuk on Zelená Hora - since 1994. The church was built in the early 1720s. It is the finest example of the work of the architect Jan Blažej Santini-Aichl and is the most original example of a style that lies between Baroque and Gothic. It is built in a five-pointed star-shaped design and is surrounded by a cemetery and walkway.
- KUTNÁ HORA - historical centre, St Barbara Cathedral and Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec - since 1995. This important royal city developed from the 14th century as a result of the exploitation of silver mines.
- LEDNICE-VALTICE AREA - since 1996. Between the 17th and 20th centuries, the ruling dukes of Liechtenstein transformed their domains into one large park (the Baroque and neo-Gothic castles, the small out-buildings in the Romantic style and the countryside fashioned according to the English principles of landscaping).
- KROMĚŘÍŽ - gardens and castle - since 1998. The castle represents an exceptionally well-preserved example of a Central European Baroque residence. Flower garden and park from late Renaissance.
- HOLAŠOVICE - village reservation - since 1998. Village buildings from the 18th and 19th centuries in a style known as the "South Bohemian Folk Baroque".
- LITOMYŠL - castle and its grounds - since 1999. The Renaissance castle from the second half of the 16th century is an example of an arcade-castle, which was first developed in Italy. You can see there unique sgraffitoed decorations on the house front and gables.
- OLOMOUC - the Trinity Column - since 2000. This memorial column from the early 18th century is the most outstanding example of a type of monuments typical for central Europe. Its height is 35m and it is decorated in Olomouc Baroque with many fine religious sculptures )work of Ondrej Zahner)
- BRNO - the Tugendhat Villa - since 2002. The Villa, built in 1928 - 1930, is one of the most important functionalist works of the European period of the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. By using steel frame without load-bearing walls the architect was able to create a new concept of an open variable space.
- TŘEBÍČ - the Jewish Quarter and the Basilica of St Prokop - since 2003. It is a unique example of the close ties between Christian and Jewish culture.
The official name is the Czech Republic
- the sovereign, united and democratic state
- The Parliament consists of two chambers: the Chamber of Deputies (200 Deputies) and the Senate (81 Senators).
- The elections to the Chamber of Deputies take place every 4 years, every 2 years one-third of the Senators are renewed.
- A new law must be signed by the head of the Chamber of Deputies, the Prime Minister and the President
- The President is elected every 5 years by inhabitants, not more than 2 terms in the row.
- The Government is composed of the prime minister, the vice-premiers and the ministers.
- Some of the ministries are: Interior, Foreign Affairs, Defence, Justice, Industry, Agriculture, Finance, Transport, Labour and Social Affairs, Education, Culture, Health
- The judicial power is divided into a system of courts, starting with the Constitutional Court (in Brno) and the Supreme Court (in Prague)
- political parties: the Civic Democratic Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Christian Democratic Union, the Union of Freedom and others