Leaving Examination Topic #24
- předškolní výchova
- základní vzdělání
- střední vzdělání a způsob jeho ukončení
- vyšší a VŠ vzdělání + tituly
- organizace - pololetí, začátek vyučování, předměty, známkování
- zvláštnosti ESC škol - uniformy, sportovní a kulturní zařízení ve školách, knihovny
- moje školní léta
- naše škola
The American school system
Most American children go to nursery school (or "kindergarten" as it's commonly called) for two years before starting their formal education.
At around age of 5 they become first-grade students at an elementary school. Each level = grade lasts one year and there are 12 in total. However, in different areas of the USA, the 12 grades are differently arranged. There are three basic possibilities:
- in some states children go to elementary school for 6 years, then to a junior high school for 3 and finally to a high school for grades 10, 11 and 12.
- alternatively, other states have a system of 8 years in elementary school (sometimes also known as "grade school") followed by 4 years in high school.
- the third possibility is 6 years in elementary school and 6 years in high school.
At the end of their high school careers, students "graduate" (provided their marks in a wide range of subjects are good enough). Some 34% of young Americans then continue their education in colleges and universities.
- 11% private high schools (the majority are religious)
- 89% public high schools
- 9th grade is called freshmen
- 10th grade is called sophomores
- 11th grade is called juniors
- 12th grade is called seniors
Yearbooks are common in American high schools. These are large photographic diaries of the previous 12 months. They contain photos of every student plus the staff, sports events, class trips, clubs, drama productions and everyday school life.
Each year there is a big party called "prom" - for the senior graduating students.
Sport plays a major role in US school life. There are also "pep bands" (brass bands which play at sports events) and "cheerleaders" (who chant, dance and generally lead the cheering in the crowd). Colleges:
- There are over 2,000 universities and colleges.
- Two of the oldest are Harvard (Massachusetts) and Yale (Connecticut), both of which are "Ivy League' colleges". That is the name given to a group of highly-respected universities. Why "Ivy League"? Because they have ivy growing on the walls of their buildings.
- The largest universities are: University of California (UC), these includes: University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA), University of California Berkeley (near San Francisco) and others.
- Students in American colleges study several subjects in their first year, and then they choose a major subject which they specialise in for the next three years.
The British School System
There are normally three school terms - autumn, spring and summer terms.
- Holidays: this can vary from region to region. The schools usually have 10 days at Christmas, 10 days at Easter and 6 weeks in the summer from the end of July to the beginning of September.
- Schoolyard: in most schools the pupils spend the break time and lunch hour in the school yard or on the school field-
- School uniform: a shirt, trousers or skirt, and sweater in the school colours, together with a school tie.
7% of British school children go to private schools independent schools. There are 2,400 independent schools. Parents pay for these schools, and fees vary from about £ 250 a term for a private nursery to £ 3,000 a term or more for a secondary boarding school.
The most famous school are called public schools and they have a long history and tradition. It is often necessary to put your child's name on a waiting list at birth to be sure he or she gets a place. Children of wealthy or aristocratic families often go to the same public school as their parents and their grandparents. Eton is the best known of these schools.
The majority of independent secondary schools, including public schools, are single-sex, although in recent years girls have been allowed to join sixth forms of boy's schools. Independent school also include religious schools (Jewish, Catholic, Muslim etc.) and schools for ethnic minorities.
All state schools in Britain are free, there are 35,000 schools.
Education is compulsory from 5-16 years.
- primary school - at 5, until 11
- at 11 most pupils go to secondary school called comprehensives
- at 16 pupils take a national exam called "GCSE" (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and then they can leave school if they wish
- Some 16-year-olds continue their studies in the sixth form at school. It prepares pupils for a national exam called "A" level (Advanced Level) at 18. You need "A" levels to enter a university.
- Other 16-year-olds choose to go a college of further education to study for more practical diplomas.
- There are 97 universities, including the Open University
- Students may receive a grant (money) from their Local Education Authority to help pay for books, accommodation, transport and food.
- Students cannot usually repeat a year, falling exams is very serious
- The oldest universities: Oxford (12th century), Cambridge (13th century)