Health care in our country
Leaving Examination Topic #14
- zdravotní péče od narození po smrt
- možnosti vzniku choroby
- možnosti léčení choroby
- dětské nemoci
- civilizační choroby
- zdravý způsob života
- návštěva lékaře
- lidské tělo
Everybody in our country has the right to choose a doctor and many people go to one family doctor. At present two types of health care operate in this country: state and private ones.
Medical care is provided from birth to death. Each of us is looked after before birth under the scheme called prenatal care which includes medical check-ups before the child is born and then maternity ward services.
Soon after birth each child is vaccinated against such illnesses as tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, smallpox. Due to vaccination and better hygiene these illnesses have either disappeared or are not fatal any more.
- series of preventive medical and dental check ups - for each school child
- children disease: cold, otitis, measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox
- Kinds of doctors: General Practitioner (GP), Paediatrician, Orthopaedist, Neurologist, Gynaecologist, Allergist, Urologist etc.
- appointment with the doctor: we need our health insurance card (General Health Insurance Office, Czech National Health Insurance Office...), we must say to doctor what our problem is, he examines us and prescribes some pills, drops, gurgles, injection etc. (if we need it, if we are not hypochondriacs)
In more serious cases or if we get injured, we may be taken to hospital by an ambulance.
- First aid: stop bleeding, fix fracture, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, put plaster, check breathing and pulse, place in the recovery position
In the hospital the injured people are examined and X-rayed at a casualty ward (emergency room = e.r.). Serious cases are immediately operated on in the operating theatre. Before the operation the patient must pass several tests and then just before the operation he is anaesthetized by means of an injection or inhalation of narcotics.
Health resort or spa - water treatment, taking baths, remedial exercises, drinking the mineral waters.
Illnesses and diseases
- Civilizational diseases- diseases which occurred in the 20th century mainly with the civilization development
- mental disorders: nervous breakdown, stress, depression, a headache, insomnia, suffer from nervous
- diseases of the blood system: high blood pressure, a heart attack, anaemia, leukaemia, varicose veins
- skin diseases: rash, acne, eczema, itch, scratch, pimple, scurvy
- common disesase
- cold, flu, cough, a sore throat, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pneumonia, constipation, diarrhoea, backache, stomach ache
- allergy, overweight, asthma, diabetes, jaundice, venereal disease, drug addict, alcohol addict, fatal - AIDS, cancer
- hectic life style, lack of vitamins, polluted environments, unhealthy daily routine, insufficient sleep = symptoms of unhealthy life style
- healthy life style - walking, fresh air, exercises, sufficient sleep, harden the body, no smoking, no or little alcohol, wholesome food, much fruit and vegetables
- 3 ways how to get an illness – from other people (viruses), our own body develops it (cancer), inherited diseases.
- ways of treatment
- western medicine - uses drugs and operations, cures only the problem
- eastern medicine - uses herbals, cures the whole body, not only the problem(acupuncture, acupressure, massages, homeopathy etc.),
- preventive medicine
Medical care in the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom and in the USA
- Medical care in our country is paid by health insurance: employers pay for their employees, employees pay health insurance tax, children and old people don't pay, it is paid by government.However, the government encourages all citizens to be responsible for their health. People in our country go to doctors too often and buy too much medicines.
- emergency phone number is 155 or 112 from any telephone
- In Britain, the National Health Service provides free health care to people in the country. Everybody is free to choose a GP in his own home area and be registered on his list (it is similar in our country). In towns it is usual for 3 or 4 GPs to join together in partnership to share the cost of expensive medical technology. The NHS system is said to be old-fashioned and it is being changed nowadays - not free of charge but paid
- If you need special treatment, the doctor will send you to see a specialist at the local hospital. In an emergency, you can call an ambulance by dialling 999
- In the USA, there are two different types of health insurance. Most people have private health insurance. If you have a fractured arm, a heart attack, or even a blister, it is possible to choose your doctor and have treatment. You pay the doctor, and then send the bill for the treatment to your insurance company. They will send you the money. The problem is that private health insurance is expensive, especially for treatment that needs specialists, such as treatment for heart attacks. If one is poor, the government will pay the doctor for treatment.
- emergency phone number is 911