Krnov. Moravian-Silesian Region
Leaving Examination Topic #21
Krnov — the town of my studies
- The archival documents remember for the first time the name of Kyrnow in the deed of the covenant of the King Wenceslas I from 1240.
- It can be taken for granted that Krnov was given the privileges of the city before 1269 and these privileges were acknowledged by Queen Kunhuta in 1279.
- In 1377 the region of Krnov became an independent principality and, based on the Moravian model, step by step the independent administrative institutions - the Provincial High Court developed and the Law of Krnov.
- The Hungarian King Mathias Corvinus conquered the dominion in 1474 and ordered to mint the royal groschen and half-groschen.
- After Corvinus' death, King Vladislav II donated the region of Krnov to his chancellor and friend, the lord of Šelenberk and Kost.
- In 1523 the Margrave George Hohenzollern of Ansbach bought the principality for 58,000 guldens.
- The last Hohenzollern was John George, the supreme commander of the troops of the "Winter King" Frederic Palatine.
- The principality of Krnov was for its defiance of the Habsburgs confiscated, and in 1622 the Emperor donated the land to Charles of Lichtenstein. During the Thirty Years' War, the principality of Krnov was sequentially plundered by the Danish and emperor troops and the Swedes set the seal on the work of devastation.
- The following century brought to the Principality of Krnov a blow which damaged the stability of economy - built and strengthened for centuries - and which doomed this important city to the loss of its strength and prestige. The Prussian King Frederic II claimed his rights to the region of Krnov which he took for unjustly confiscated to his Hohenzollern ancestors. The dispute spread over the whole Silesia and the troops of Maria Theresa were not able to defend the territory belonging to the Czech Crown for centuries.
- The peace made in Breslau (Vratislav) in 1742 brought to the region of Krnov the loss of the large territories on the left bank of the rivers Opava and Opavice and separation of the whole region of Hlubčice. The remaining torso of the principality had to change its economic interests from Upper Silesia to Moravia and Austria.
- Krnov waited for its revival till the break of the 19th and 20th centuries when it ranged with the foremost industrial places in Austria - Hungary due to its intense development of the textile industry. This kind of industry is connected with the very beginnings of the city.
- The last war wrote a painful page into the history of the city. The war which took a tax out in human fates and the appearance of Krnov as well. Nearly half of the buildings were destroyed by the war events and then the entire majority of the German population was evacuated. Only the run of the time will give the strength to wipe away a tear of bitterness on both the parts.
- Krnov is situated on the 50 ° of the northern geographical latitude and on the 17° of the eastern geographical longitude at the frontier between Poland and the Czech Republic.
- It lies on the confluence of two rivers, the Opava and the Opavice.
- The city's centre is situated 315 m above the sea level, the most marked field shape is the hill Cvilín, 441 m high
- Leopold Bauer (1872 - 1938), the most famous native of Krnov, went down in the image of Krnov. He was one of the outstanding protagonists of modern architecture in Central Europe at the beginning of the century. His works: gymnasium in Petrovická street, The House of Children (House of Shooters), or Breda in Opava etc.
- the citizens' houses in Hobzíkova Street with arcades
- the City Hall which is a copy of one of Vienna's city halls
- the Concert Hall of the Holy Spirit - one of the oldest buildings in the city (the place where our school's graduation ceremony takes place)
- the castle
- the Jewish synagogue
- churches - the St Martin church in the centre, the Assumption of the Virgin church in the centre, evangelical church
- castle wall - the Swedish Wall
- the Town Theatre
- the outlook towers on Cvilín hill (26 metres high) and on Ježník hill
- the Baroque pilgrims' church of Virgin Mary of Sorrows on the hill of Cvilín
- the ruins of Gothic castle Cvilín called also Šelenburk
- In the west lie the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains (called the Ash Mountains or the Jeseníky), with the highest mountain of the region (and all Moravia), Praděd (1491 m). On top of the TV tower on Praděd, there is the highest point of the Czech Republic.
- In the mountain range, there are beautiful nature and famous spas of Karlova Studánka. There are also several ski resorts like Červenohorské sedlo or Ovčárna with long-lasting snow cover.
- the Nízký Jeseník (with the highest mountain Slunečná at 800 m)
- the Oderské vrchy (Fidlův kopec, 680 m).
- the confluence of the rivers Odra and Olše is the lowest point of the region, at 195 m.
- the main river is the Odra with tributaries - the Opava, the Ostravice and the Olše
- the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mountains - highest mountain Lysá hora (i.e. Bald Mountain) at 1323 m, which is considered to be the place with the highest annual rainfall in the Czech Republic (around 1500 mm). The mountains are heavily forested and serve as a holiday resort (e.g. Pustevny, Bílá) for the industrial north.
- There are three large Landscape Protected Areas (Chráněné krajinné oblasti) and five Nature Parks (Přírodní parky).
- the CHKO Jeseníky - 80% of the area is forested. There are also a few peat moors.
- the CHKO Poodří lies in the Moravian Gate on the banks of the meandering Odra.
- the CHKO Beskydy is the largest Czech CHKO. Most of the area is forested.
- There are three towns with protected historical centres:
- Příbor, the birthplace of Sigmund Freud, was an important centre of education for north Moravia from the 17th to the first half of the 20th century.
- Nový Jičín founded under the castle of Starý Jičín, has a well preserved central square, nearby is the Žerotínský Château, dating back to the 14th century.
- Štramberk is a unique small town nestled between lime hills with a lot of timbered houses and the spire of Trúba on a hill above the town.
- there are a lot of châteaux in the region, most famous is Hradec nad Moravicí, Raduň, Kravaře, Fulnek, and Hukvaldy in a village known for the composer Leoš Janáček, who was born there. Another well-known castle ruin is Sovinec
- there are many museums displaying products of local technical development:
- the Automobile Museum in Kopřivnice
- Train Car Museum in Studénka
- Mining Museum and the former Michal Mine (Důl Michal) in Ostrava
- Technical Museum in Lower Vítkovice Area
- there are lots of schools and three universities (VŠB-TU - Technical University of Ostrava, University of Ostrava, Silesian University Opava)
Population and Administrative Division
- the total population is more than 1,260,000
- it is the most populous region of the Czech Republic.
- the population density is 227.3 inhabitants per sq km, which is the second highest in the country, after the capital Prague.
- the region is divided into 22 Municipalities with Extended Competence (Obce s rozšířenou pravomocí). They are Bílovec, Bohumín, Bruntál, Český Těšín, Frenštát pod Radhoštěm, Frýdek-Místek, Frýdlant nad Ostravicí, Havířov, Hlučín, Jablunkov, Karviná, Kopřivnice, Kravaře, Krnov, Nový Jičín, Odry, Opava, Orlová, Ostrava, Rýmařov, Třinec and Vítkov.