Leaving Examination Topic #5
- poloha, počet obyvatel
- historie - původ názvu, od kdy, historické mezníky - 1066, 1666
- politické centrum - sídla
- kulturní centrum - divadla, muzea a galerie, parky
- obchodní centrum - City
- dopravní centrum - letiště, říční doprava, double deckers, cabs
- zajímavá místa (umět s mapou a obrázky)
London is the capital of both England and the United Kingdom. It lies on the river Thames and covers an area of 1,580 sq km. About 9 million people live there. London grew from three centres: the City (also known as the Square Mile), the City of Westminster and Southwark.
London is the seat of the Monarch, the Government and the Supreme Court.
- History: it was occupied by the Romans - Londonium, during the 12th century the royal court moved from Winchester, the former capital, to London (William the Conqueror).In 1665 more than 75,000 people died from a plague epidemic and in 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed four fifths of the city.
- Industry and commerce: traditional industries - woodworking, furniture-making, the chemical and food industries, clothing, printing, diamond cutting. 22% of the world's financial transactions take place in London - the London Stock Exchange (established in 1773) is the biggest in the world. London is also an important centre of the gold, silver and platinum trade, art trade (Sotheby's and Christie's Auction Halls), there are studios (TV, Radio, Film), publishing houses and national press services.
- Transport: river – river buses, large cargo ships. Air - airports Heathrow, Gatwick. Rail - 15 central railway stations. Underground - called tube, 273 stations. Buses - red double-deckers.
Places of interest
- The City of London - is the largest financial and commercial centre of Europe. It was formed by the Romans nearly 2000 years ago.
- The Tower of London - it was built by William the Conqueror. It served as a royal home, fortress, observatory, zoo, prison, execution site, a royal mint and an observatory. Now it is a museum - weapons, the crown jewels
- Tower Bridge - opened in 1894, built in the Gothic style; is a combined bascule and suspension bridge. The Tower Bridge Exhibition is a display housed in the bridge's twin towers, it uses films, photos and interactive displays to explain why and how Tower Bridge was built.
- The St. Paul's Cathedral - the second largest cathedral (after St. Peter's in Rome), built by architect Sir Christopher Wren who helped with constructions after the Great Fire, it was built 35 years and was finished in 1711. It is the seat of the Bishop of London
- The Houses of Parliament - Palace of Westminster - the home of the British Parliament. There are two towers - Victoria Tower and Elizabeth Tower which is usually called Big Ben. Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock. Eliizabeth Tower was renamed to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 2012; previously, it was known simply as the Clock Tower.
- Westminster Abbey - is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs.
- Buckingham Palace - the seat of the Queen
- Trafalgar Square, Piccadilly Circus - the best-known squares. In Trafalgar Square there is the National Gallery, a column with the statue of Horatio Nelson, an admiral who won the battel of Trafalgar. In Piccadilly Circus there is a memorial fountain and statue, which is popularly, though mistakenly, believed to be of Eros.
- Greenwich - is a town that is a part of Greater London. Greenwich is notable for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian (0° longitude) and Greenwich Mean Time. There is also the Royal Observatory.
- Windsor Castle - is a royal residence.
- St. Katharine's Docks - a popular housing and leisure complex.
- Globe Theatre - was a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare. It was built in 1599 by Shakespeare's playing company. A modern reconstruction of the Globe, named "Shakespeare's Globe", opened in 1997 approximately 750 feet (230 m) from the site of the original theatre.
- Parks: St. James's Park, Hyde Park (the Speaker's Corner - the place where everybody can speak publicly without fear of being arrested for their opinion), Kensington Gardens, Regent's Park (most elegant park with attractive gardens, lakes and zoo); Kew Gardens is a botanical garden in southwest London that houses the "largest and most diverse botanical and mycological collections in the world".
- Museums: the British Museum, the British Library, the National Gallery, the Sherlock Holmes Museum, the Tate Gallery, Madame Tussaud's in Marylebone (wax portraits of famous and infamous world figures – the royal family, pop stars, etc.).