• drogy a návykové látky
  • terorismus
  • rasismus
  • války a chudý třetí svět
  • klimatické změny
  • problémy mladé generace - bydlení, vztahy s rodiči, zaměstnanost, party

The life of youth in our country

Problems of young generation: work, living (lack of flats and houses), drugs, love and sex

  • Work: Many young people who finish their study have problems to find a good job. British newspaper The Guardian wrote about it: „The key skill for a student was to position yourself at the moment of graduation so that you got a job where you could move up. Today, it seems, you are an underachiever (=člověk, který ničeho nedosáhne) if you haven't made your first million by the time you graduate" (Many students at British universities launch their business - their budgets are in million pounds)
  • Living: Little flats and houses for young people is a very important problem - you cannot find a good job if you don't have any living and on the contrary. Young people are forced to live with their parents or grandparents, they can't learn to work with their own money
  • Teenage alcoholism: Parents complain that their children drink because they think it is smart. Teenagers tend to go out and buy drinks. Young people associate alcohol with glamour. Boredom accounts for a lot of drinking, some teenagers claim there is nothing except drink. For many unemployed youngster drinking is a form of escape.
  • Drugs: What is a drug? It is any substance except food that causes changes in the body or mind. Many drugs are legal to buy - alcohol, tobacco, medicines that can be bought without a prescription and others. Legal drugs can be harmful as illegal drugs if they are misused.
    • The categories of the drugs:
      1. Depressants: these depress the central nervous system (brain and nerve system), they slow down and sedate it. They are: alcohol, sleeping pills
      2. Narcotics: these reduce the feeling of pain. Heroin, morphine, and opium
      3. Stimulants: these stimulate or speed up the central nervous system - cocaine, caffeine, methamphetamines
      4. Hallucinogens: these distort (zkreslují) sight and sound, may cause people to hear and see things that are not there - LSD, certain mushrooms
      5. Marijuana: this drug is in a category by itself because it has some of the effects of depressants, stimulants and hallucinogens
      6. Steroids: they are used illegally to improve physical performance.
    • Addiction to a drug means that the user has an overpowering need to use that drug. She/he cannot control this need. Using can lead to serious emotional, physical and health problems!!

Problems of modern world

  1. poverty
  2. disease (the Ebola virus, Tuberculosis, HIV etc.)
  3. wars
  4. terrorism
  5. racism

Nuclear Terrorism

  • A nuclear terrorist attack is an incident in which a terrorist organization uses a nuclear device to cause mass murder and devastation.
  • Nuclear terrorism also includes the use, or threat of use, of fissionable radioactive materials in an attack, for example, an assault on a nuclear power plant for the purpose of causing extensive and/or irreversible environmental damage. In this case, the terrorist organization need not develop, acquire or gain control of a nuclear bomb in order to cause extensive damage. It need only use conventional weapons against one of the many nuclear reactors in the world in order to seriously damage the reactor, thus releasing radioactive matter into the atmosphere. Such an attack can endanger large population centres.
  • Nuclear weapons can give terrorist organizations considerable advantages, since they can inflict large numbers of casualties and command worldwide media attention. Moreover, because it is hard to assess a terrorist organization’s threats to use nuclear weapons. Western countries are particularly susceptible to terrorist blackmail under threat of a nuclear strike. Decision makers have no way of knowing how likely the terrorists are to carry out their threat.
  • A terrorist organization may attempt to obtain fissionable material or nuclear weapons in a number of ways:
    1. It may purchase fissionable material on the Eastern European black market. The disintegration of the Soviet Union, the economic crisis that has gripped most of the FSU, the demoralization of the Russian army, and the deterioration of governmental control of radioactive material and nuclear bombs in some of these countries have encouraged Black-market commerce in radioactive material.
    2. It may purchase or obtain radioactive materials from other countries, particularly those that support terrorism. Several “revolutionary” states such as Iran, Iraq, and Libya are known to be actively and regularly assisting various terrorist organizations. These same states have considerable resources and have made massive investments toward the acquisition of nuclear capability, and are striving to develop or purchase nuclear weapons.
    3. It is rather unlikely that a terrorist organization would itself construct a nuclear bomb, for this requires special resources and training that terrorist organizations do not possess at the present time. However it is worth bearing in mind that such an organization may try to construct a simpler radioactive device, either by using its own scientists or by hiring scientists on the black market (many unemployed nuclear scientists are available on the world market, having been discharged in the FSU, and are willing to sell their professional expertise and experience to the highest bidder).
    4. Terrorists may even seize a nuclear stockpile, one of the many stockpiles of various nuclear devices and other hazardous substances around the world.

Thus, terrorist organizations have various options for obtaining nuclear capability or a nuclear device. It is important to remember that terrorist organizations usually lack moral scruples and do not fear a nuclear response or damage to their international interests as a result of using nuclear weapons (a fear that has deterred sovereign states from using weapons of this kind in war and peacetime). All these factors make terrorist organizations more dangerous in nuclear terms than sovereign states.


  • Modern medicine can cure most diseases but there are some new ones that are very serious.
    • the Ebola virus - was first seen in Africa in 1976, there is still no known cure
    • HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) causing AIDS is the threat for millions of people
    • Bird Flu - was first seen in Asia in2003 and is fatal, there is still no known cure

Major problems in the world the today

Examples include government-produced famine in parts of Africa; political instability, poverty, and crushing national debt in Latin America; war and terrorism; the global consequences of destruction of natural resources; economic and cultural dislocations caused by technological change; the proliferation of nuclear weapons; and the struggle to defend human rights and democratic freedoms against governments that respect neither. Each problem will be examined to illustrate the relationships between current issues and their historical, geographic, political, economic, and cultural contexts.

Economic concerns

  • Today, the nations of the world are more closely tied than ever before. Economic events in one region, such as OPEC's decision to raise oil prices in the 1970s, affect people around the world. The debt crisis of the 1980s, for example, showed the interdependence of Third World debtor nations and creditor banks in developed nations.
  • Rich and poor nations: the gap between rich and poor nations is growing. Although rich nations have provided aid and technical assistance to Third World nations, the developing nations face many obstacles in their drive to modernize. The population explosion, inflation, natural disasters, poor planning, and even government corruption have upset the development plans of many Third World nations. Some progress has been made in increasing food production. Researchers developed new high-yield crops as well as disease- and drought resistant crops. The new crops resulted in the "Green Revolution," whereby farmers doubled or tripled the amount of food produced on the same amount of land. Environmental concerns.
  • Since the 1960s, many people have become concerned about the environment. The uses of pesticides and chemical fertilizers as well as the wastes produced by factories have contributed to the problem of polluted air, water, and soil. Both developing and industrialized nations face the difficult decision of how to produce enough for their people while preventing the destruction of the environment. Many problems of the environment are linked to the world's energy needs. To meet their needs, nations are rapidly using up oil, coal, and wood & em-dash; non-renewable energy sources. Today, scientists are looking at alternative energy sources such as solar, water, and nuclear power.

Other changes

  • The post-war period has brought tremendous changes. Radio, television, and other forms of mass communication allow people from all parts of the globe to be in touch with one another. An information explosion and the growth of technology have led to the need for well-educated people in the workplace.
  • Major social changes have occurred as more and more women work outside the home. As nations industrialize, more people live in urban areas.
  • Social and economic changes have upset traditional ways of life in many nations and contributed to social problems such as crime, the breakdown of the family, and drug abuse. Today, people are searching for solutions and are seeking a balance between the ways of life that worked in the past and the needs of today's rapidly changing world.

Cloning humans

People have diverse and strongly held opinions regarding the morality of cloning humans. This debate is usually couched in religious and ethical terms. Theologians and Ethicists may use different routes to arrive at the same conclusion.

Religious arguments are based largely on the traditions and scriptures unique to each faith. Different religions have different attitudes towards cloning and within each faith there is diversity of opinion.

Ethical arguments are based on more general guidelines for behaviour that do not stem from any particular religion. Ethics usually vary more by culture than by religion. In general society does not disagree on what is ethically wrong; rather society disagrees on how to weigh different ethical considerations. For example, should fears that human cloning might harm the physical and psychological welfare of the child outweigh arguments for personal autonomy and freedom of inquiry?


  1. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within particular religious traditions.
  2. It took the scientists who created Dolly 277 tries before they got a healthy, viable lamb. Because cloning humans is more complicated, "even more deaths and lethal birth defects can be expected during experimentation"
  3. At the current time the risks associated with the cloning of humans are so great that "virtually all people agree that the current risks of physicals harm to children associated with somatic cell nuclear transplantation cloning might justify a prohibition at this time on such experimentation"

Facts on poverty

  1. Half the world — nearly three billion people — live on less than two dollars a day.
  2. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the poorest 48 nations (i.e. a quarter of the world's countries) is less than the wealth of the world's three richest people combined.
  3. Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names.
  4. Less than one per cent of what the world spent every year on weapons was needed to put every child into school by the year 2000 and yet it didn't happen.
  5. Half the world — nearly three billion people — lives on less than two dollars a day.
  6. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the poorest 48 nations (i.e. a quarter of the world's countries) is less than the wealth of the world's three richest people combined.
  7. Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names.
  8. Less than one per cent of what the world spent every year on weapons was needed to put every child into school by the year 2000 and yet it didn't happen.
  9. 51 percent of the world's 100 hundred wealthiest bodies are corporations.
  10. The wealthiest nation on Earth has the widest gap between rich and poor of any industrialized nation.
  11. The poorer the country, the more likely it is that debt repayments are being extracted directly from people who neither contracted the loans nor received any of the money.
  12. 20% of the population in the developed nations, consume 86% of the worlds goods.
  13. The top fifth of the world's people in the richest countries enjoy 82% of the expanding export trade and 68% of foreign direct investment — the bottom fifth, barely more than 1%.
  14. In 1960, the 20% of the world's people in the richest countries had 30 times the income of the poorest 20% — in 1997, 74 times as much.
  15. An analysis of long-term trends shows the distance between the richest and poorest countries was about:
    • 3 to 1 in 1820
    • 11 to 1 in 1913
    • 35 to 1 in 1950
    • 44 to 1 in 1973
    • 72 to 1 in 1992
  16. “The lives of 1.7 million children will be needlessly lost this year [2000] because world governments have failed to reduce poverty levels”
  17. The developing world now spends $13 on debt repayment for every $1 it receives in grants.
  18. A few hundred millionaires now own as much wealth as the world's poorest 2.5 billion people.
  19. “The 48 poorest countries account for less than 0.4 per cent of global exports.”
  20. “The combined wealth of the world's 200 richest people hit $1 trillion in 1999; the combined incomes of the 582 million people living in the 43 least developed countries is $146 billion.”
  21. “Of all human rights failures today, those in economic and social areas affect by far the larger number and are the most widespread across the world's nations and large numbers of people.”
  22. “Approximately 790 million people in the developing world are still chronically undernourished, almost two-thirds of whom reside in Asia and the Pacific.”
  23. “7 Million children die each year as a result of the debt crisis.
  24. For economic growth and almost all of the other indicators, the last 20 years [of the current form of globalization, from 1980 - 2000] have shown a very clear decline in progress as compared with the previous two decades [1960 - 1980]. For each indicator, countries were divided into five roughly equal groups, according to what level the countries had achieved by the start of the period (1960 or 1980). Among the findings:
    1. Growth: The fall in economic growth rates was most pronounced and across the board for all groups or countries.
    2. Life Expectancy: Progress in life expectancy was also reduced for 4 out of the 5 groups of countries, with the exception of the highest group (life expectancy 69-76 years).
    3. Infant and Child Mortality: Progress in reducing infant mortality was also considerably slower during the period of globalization (1980-1998) than over the previous two decades.
    4. Education and literacy: Progress in education also slowed during the period of globalization.
  25. Today, across the world, 1.3 billion people live on less than one dollar a day; 3 billion live on under two dollars a day; 1.3 billion have no access to clean water; 3 billion have no access to sanitation; 2 billion have no access to electricity.
  26. The richest 50 million people in Europe and North America have the same income as 2.7 billion poor people. “The slice of the cake taken by 1% is the same size as that handed to the poorest 57%.
  27. The world's 497 billionaires in 2001 registered a combined wealth of $1.54 trillion, well over the combined gross national products of all the nations of sub-Saharan Africa ($929.3 billion) or those of the oil-rich regions of the Middle East and North Africa ($1.34 trillion). It is also greater than the combined incomes of the poorest half of humanity.
  28. A mere 12 percent of the world's population uses 85 percent of its water, and these 12 percent do not live in the Third World.

Civilization has brought people many advantages but its products also pollute and damage the environment in which we live.

Air pollution is the biggest problem in large cities and in areas with concentrated production. Emissions range from smoke, dust and smells to car and lorry exhausts. Substances such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO) can cause major changes in the environment which can lead to climate changes. When they mix with water in the air - the mixture travels for hundred of miles and finally falls back to Earth = acid rain. It kills fish and trees.

The Greenhouse effect - the atmosphere is a blanket of gases around the earth. Because of pollution, there are more and more gases in the atmosphere. This means that the Earth is getting hotter. Pollution sends 4 main "greenhouse gases" into the atmosphere:

  • carbon dioxide (CO2) - from the burning of fossil fuels (coal, gas, oil) and from the burning of rainforest trees
  • CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) - these are aerosols, refrigerators, plastic boxes - CFC molecules destroy the atmosphere - the ozone is now getting thinner
  • methane - from fertilizers, cows stomachs, rubbish
  • nitrous oxide - from fertilizers, cows stomach, rubbish

Wildlife - by 2030, 25% of all animals, birds, fish and insects may be extinct - their home are polluted, they are hunted, and their environment is getting smaller. Some animals are protected (bats, badgers), others are bred in captivity for release in the wild so they have best chance of survival. The establishment of National Parks and Nature Reserves provide protection, and also provide opportunities for outdoor recreation

Land - 40% of the world's rainforest have disappeared in the last 100 years. This is happening because people need wood and paper, minerals and medicines, more room for farms and houses. The Sahara Desert is growing bigger every year.

Energy - 94% of the world energy comes from oil, gas and coal. There is only enough oil and gas for the next 50 years; coal will last longer - perhaps another 300 years. Then what? - Nuclear power, natural energy (from the sun, sea, wind and under the ground - but it is too expensive.

Noise is a problem for many people. It results in stress, lack of concentration, defective hearing or sleeplessness

Air Pollution Problems


Air pollution is one of the most pervasive environmental problems because atmospheric currents can carry contaminated air to every part of the globe. Most air pollution comes from motor vehicle emissions and from power plants that burn coal and oil to produce energy for industrial and consumer use. Carbon dioxide and other harmful gases released into the air from these sources adversely affect weather patterns and the health of people, animals, and plants.

Industrialized nations produce most of the world’s air pollution. For example, although the United States is home to just 5 per cent of the world’s population, the country generates 22 per cent of human-made carbon dioxide emissions and 19 per cent of all greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These emissions harm the environment by causing acid rain and global warming, and by depleting the protective ozone layer that surrounds the Earth.

Acid rain, a serious threat around the world, occurs when sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from motor vehicles and fossil-fuel burning power plants fall back to Earth as acidic precipitation. Acid rain has contaminated many lakes in Canada and the northeast United States, and has been documented even in the non-industrial state of Hawaii. In the United Kingdom, 57 per cent of all trees are moderately to severely defoliate due to corrosive fallout, and production of food crops has declined in many parts of the world. Acid rain has eroded the surfaces of great art and architectural treasures, including the ancient sculptures of Rome and the Sphinx in Egypt.

Global Warming

Global warming is another negative by-product of air pollution, and although there is debate about the sources of the problem, most scientists agree that the Earth is heating up. One of the principal causes is thought to be high atmospheric concentrations of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These and related substances are called greenhouse gases because they trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere instead of letting it radiate into space, thereby raising air temperature.

Since 1800, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have risen 25 per cent, largely due to the burning of fossil fuels. Based on current levels of greenhouse-gas emissions, average temperatures around the globe will increase by 1° to 3°C (1.8° to 5.4°F) by the year 2050. By comparison, temperatures dropped only 3°C (5.4°F) during the last Ice Age, which blanketed much of the Earth in glacial ice. If the warming trend continues, glaciers would melt, causing sea levels to rise by as much as 65 cm (26 in), a depth that would inundate most coastal cities. Low-lying island nations such as the Maldives would disappear altogether, and fertile farmland would turn to desert.

Although emission of greenhouse gases has dropped 11 per cent in recent years, this may be only a temporary lull due to the worldwide recession and industrial slowdowns. In fact, it would take a 60 per cent cut in emissions to stabilize atmospheric gases at current levels.

Another serious problem related to air pollution is the shrinking of the upper atmospheric ozone layer that blocks out dangerous ultraviolet (UV) light. First reported over Antarctica in the 1980s, ozone holes have since been detected over parts of North America and elsewhere. The holes are created when ozone molecules are destroyed by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that are used in refrigerants and aerosol containers and can drift into the upper atmosphere if not properly contained.

Some scientists estimate that 60 per cent of the ozone layer may already have been lost to pollution, and that even a 10 per cent loss could add a total of 300,000 new cases of skin cancer and 1.6 million cases of eye cataracts worldwide. The high levels of UV light that cause skin cancer and eye problems may also harm plankton, the foundation of the food chain in oceans. Serious declines in plankton levels could lead to catastrophic losses of other sea life.

In December 1997, at an international summit in Kyoto, Japan, world leaders signed the Kyoto Protocol, an agreement requiring 138 industrialized countries to limit emissions of six greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, which would otherwise cause significant global warming.

Smog and Motor Vehicles

Finally, urban air pollution, usually in the form of smog generated by industry and motor vehicles, remains a serious health hazard for more than one billion people around the world. During the 1980s, European countries cut sulphur dioxide emissions by 27 per cent, and the volume of most pollutants dropped in the United States. Even so, cities such as Los Angeles, New York, Mexico City, and Beijing record unhealthy levels of air pollution on one day out of every three.


Modern medicine can cure most diseases but there are some new ones that are very serious.

  • the Ebola virus - was first seen in Africa in 1976, there is still no known cure
  • HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) causing AIDS is the threat for millions of people
  • Bird Flu - was first seen in Asia in 2003 and is fatal, there is still no known cure

  • vědecko technická revoluce v 19. století
  • Nobelova cena a její čeští nositelé
  • vědecký rozvoj ve 20. století
  • vynálezy a vynálezci
  • internet
  • rozvoj lékařství
  • media
  • jedna z metropolí - viz ESC

Brief history of science in Britain

17th century

It was not orientated towards transforming the economy, though its achievements contributed to the enlarging of human knowledge:

  • William Harvey – discovered blood circulation
  • Edmund Halley – observed a great comet and correctly predicted its return
  • Sir Isaac Newton – discoverer of the law of gravity, remind the basis of physics
  • The Royal Society – founded by Charles II in 1660.

18th century

It was directed to practice – numerous inventions in industry and agriculture, but also in chemistry, physics, and medicine.

  • Edward Jenner – discovered vaccination
  • James Watt – a Scottish engineer who invented the steam engine
  • George Stephenson – constructed the first steam locomotive

19th century

The scientific idea that most affected general thought was the doctrine of evolution.

Other inventions concerned electricity and medicine – the electric telegraph, the steam turbine, pneumatic tyres, using of chloroform and antiseptics, using modern nursing methods by Florence Nightingale (a British nurse who served in the Crimean War).

  • Charles Darwin – wrote On the Origin of Species in 1859. He was Britain’s greatest biologist, founder of the theory of evolution.

20th century

The British contribution to science was maintained in the 20th century. One third of all Nobel prizes awarded for scientific research went to Britain. The greatest advance was made in physics, chemistry, medicine, and molecular biology, electronics and nuclear technology.

  • Lord Rutherford – discovered the atomic nucleus in 1919
  • Chemistry – new substances – plastics, synthetic fibres and synthetic rubber
  • Sir Alexander Fleming – discovered penicillin in 1928 and was awarded the 1945 Nobel Prize for medicine.
  • John Maynard Keynes – presented new methods of regulating the economy.
  • Sir Ambrose Fleming – constructed the first thermion valve (it led to the development of radio and TV broadcasting).

Nobel Prize for science has been awarded to more than 70 British citizens since they were first given in 1901.

  • The Government takes the responsibility for funding research in basic science, largely through a system of research councils, which distribute money in the form of grants to universities and other institutions.
  • Major areas for research are physics, space, biology, biotechnology and engineering, while much chemical research is in the field of pharmaceuticals. British research also makes a major contribution to aviation electronics and automatic guidance system, or supersonic planes (Concorde). The Medical Research Council supports projects on all aspects of disease, including AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) research. Much research is being done on the environmental aspects of health, the earth’s resources, the oceans and the atmosphere. The British were the first to identify the hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica.
  • Protection of the environment is one of the most important tasks in a highly urbanized and industrialized country. The problems of air pollution, city and industrial wastes, chemicals and fertilizers have become very serious in Britain. The dreadful smog (smoke and fog) caused some 4,000 deaths in December 1952. Since then London have become ‚smokeless zone‘, i.e. an area where smokeless fuels must be used.

American scientists

  • After experimenting with various acoustical devices Alexander Graham Bell produced the first intelligible telephonic transmission with a message to his assistant, Thomas Watson, on 5th June, 1875. When he heard that Elisha Gray was working on a similar device, Bell patented his telephone on 3rd March, 1876. The following year formed the Bell Telephone Company. The telephone was an instant success. Within three years there were 30,000 telephones in use around the world.
  • In 1905 Albert Einstein published his special theory of relativity. Einstein argued that the laws of nature are the same for all observers in unaccelerated motion, and the speed of light is independent in the motion of its source. Einstein postulated that the time interval between two events was longer for an observer in whose frame of reference the events occur in different places than for the observer for whom they occur at the same place.
  • In 1915 Einstein published his general theory of relativity where he argued that the properties of space-time were to be conceived as modified locally by the presence of a body with mass. The theory of relativity revolutionized our understanding of matter, space, and time. Einstein achieved world recognition for his general theory of relativity and won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1921
  • Thomas Edison tested over 3000 filaments before he came up with his version of a practical light bulb. As shocking as it may seem, this was not his greatest invention. His other inventions were for example phonograph, kinetoscop, the construction of dynamo, automatic telegraph system, and he also invented paraffin paper (which was first used for wrapping candies).

Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes

Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm in 1833. He travelled a great deal and was able to speak five languages fluently. He is most famous for inventing dynamite and in 1867 he took out a patent for it. Nobel died in 1896 and in his will he set up a fund and directed that the income of his $9 million estate would be used to five annual prizes. His intention was to reward discoveries that benefited humanity. The first prize was awarded in 1901.

The Nobel Prize is an international award given yearly since 1901 In accordance with the will, the awards are given for inventions in the fields of physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine, for the most distinguished literary work and for the most effective work in the interests of international peace. In 1968, the Bank of Sweden instituted the sixth prize and it is called the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize.

[Obrázek]The Prize Winners are announced in October every year. Winners receive their awards (a prize amount, a gold medal and a diploma) on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. 758 individuals and 18 organizations have been awarded the Nobel Prize.33 Nobel Prize Winners are women and 724 are men. Only 2 of them were from the Czech Republic:

  1. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959 for Jaroslav Heyrovský
    "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"
  2. The Nobel Prize in Literature 1984 [Obrázek]for Jaroslav Seifert
    "for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man"

Inventions of the 20th century

  • COMPUTER - it is a very useful invention and it is developing so fast. More and more people have computers and more and more people have access to the Internet. They can download one of a variety programs, they can fancy virtual communications
  • TV SET – the first television was made in 1929, but the remote control was made 27 years later, in 1956.
  • MOBILE PHONE - if we had said this word to our great-grandparents they wouldn't have been able to imagine what it is. But nowadays all people, even little kids, know what the thing called a mobile telephone is. The name of the first person to use a phone out in the street is Marty Cooper. It was on 3rd April 1973 and he stood on a street corner in Manhattan. It had been developed by Motorola.
  • FRIDGE and FREEZER - one of home appliances. Its normal functions are chilling and freezing food.
  • DIGITAL CAMERA - these are cameras that have an electronic image sensor (something like miniature scanner) instead of film. The picture is saved into the camera's memory. The advantage is that you can go clicking and taking pictures as long as its memory allows you to. Then you empty the memory into a computer and you can continue shooting.
  • GENETIC ENGINEERING - biotechnology can have some benefits but some people feel the dangers outweigh any potential benefits. On April 6, 2000 the American scientists finished analysing all the components that make up human DNA. There are about 3 billion letters in the roughly 80,000 genes that make up the instructions for making a human.

Czech scientists

  • Jan Janský (1873-1921) was a Czech serologist, neurologist and psychiatrist. He is credited with the first classification of blood into four types (A, B, AB, O). Through his psychiatric research, Janský tried to find a relation between mental diseases and blood diseases. He found no such relation exists and published a study Hematologická studie u psychotiků (1907, Hematological study of psychotics) in which he classified blood into four groups I, II, III, IV. Janský's classification remains in use today.
  • Václav Prokop Diviš (1698 - 1765) was a Czech theologian and natural scientist who invented the lightning rod between 1750 and 1754 independently of Benjamin Franklin, and constructed the first electrified musical instrument in history, the so-called Denis d'or.
  • Karel Absolon (1877 - 1960) was Czech archaeologist, geographer, palaeontologist and speleologist. His most known work is palaeoanthropologic discoveries at Dolní Věstonice which include a Venus figure. He worked on systemic mapping of Moravský kras, including the abyss Macocha and caves Pekárna, Punkevní and Kateřinská. He also explored karstic caves in the Balkans, France and England.
  • Jan Evangelista Purkyně (1787 - 1869) was a Czech anatomist, patriot, and physiologist. He is best known for his 1837 discovery of Purkinje cells, large neurons and Purkinje fibres. He also introduced the scientific terms plasma (for the component of blood left when the suspended cells have been removed) and protoplasm (the substance found inside cells). Purkyně was the first to use a microtome to make wafer thin slices of tissue for microscopic examination and was among the first to use an improved version of the compound microscope. He described the effects of camphor, opium, belladonna and turpentine on humans in 1829, discovered sweat glands in 1833 and recognised fingerprints as a method of identification in 1823.
  • Gregor Johann Mendel (1822 – 1884) was an Austrian monk who is often called the "father of genetics" for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. Mendel showed that there was particulate inheritance of traits according to his laws of inheritance. The significance of Mendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century. Its rediscovery prompted the foundation of genetics.
  • Otto Wichterle (1913 –1998) was a Czech chemist and inventor, best known for his invention of modern contact lenses.