Sport and Games
Leaving Examination Topic #8
- pojem sport a game
- druhy sportů (různá dělení) + příklady
- sporty v UK
- sporty v USA
- sporty v ČR - původní sporty, oblíbené sporty, vztah ke sportu, sportovci
- soutěže a OH
- jeden vybraný sport
Sports are the most popular leisure activities, games - activities with rules.
Sports help to keep fit both physically and mentally, can help take off some weight and can help to meet a lot of new people and see how it feels to be winner or loser.
The United Kingdom
They are lovers of competitive sports, and when they are neither playing nor watching games they like to talk about them.
- The British are very fond of sport, but many people prefer to watch rather than take part.
- Some people go regularly to a sport centre or leisure centre where there are facilities for playing badminton and squash and also a swimming pool. Some sport centres arrange classes in aerobics, step, and keep-fit
- Membership of a sport club or gym can be expensive. Local sports centres are generally cheaper.
- Evening classes are also cheap and offer a wide variety of fitness activities from yoga to jazz dancing.
- Other people go running or jogging in their local area, some people keep themselves fit by walking or cycling.
- England was the home for many sports: football - in this collective game two teams of 11 players play with a ball on a grass playing field. The purpose is to kick the ball into the opposite goal. (Some of the clubs are: Manchester United, Arsenal, FC Liverpool, Chelsea, Aston Villa, in London there is one of the world's biggest football stadiums - the Wembley Arena – now under reconstruction), rugby - it was first played at town of Rugby (the ball is oval and you can play with your hands, too), cricket, horse-racing, rowing (rowing race between Oxford and Cambridge Universities is held every year in the spring. There were more than 150 races - 80times Cambridge won), Scotland is the home of golf. Lawn tennis - Wimbledon tournament - one of four most important in the world (Paris, New York, Melbourne)
- Many people now go abroad on a skiing holiday each year an there are several dry ski slopes in Britain where they can practise.
The United States of America
- Most sports have been commercionalized - the four most professional games - football, basketball, baseball and ice-hockey (it has roots in Canada).
- Football is the most popular sport, followed by baseball and basketball. American football is different from European - oval ball, playing with hands, scoring (touchdowns at field goals). European football is called soccer there.
- Professional sports are big business. Team owners pay their stars salaries in the millions. Companies that sell sportswear and equipment pay large sums of money to famous players to advertise their products.
- Basketball has the home in the USA. It was first only exercise for football players, their winter preparation.
- Sports are very popular in American elementary schools, high schools and universities. Each school has its own gym, often swimming pool and stadium, too. School teams are have their cheerleaders. Children are encouraged to participate in sports at an early age.
The Czech Republic
- The most popular are ball games: football (vice-champions and champions of Europe in 1996 and 1976), ice-hockey (Olympic winner in 1998, eleven times champions of the world in 1947, 1949, 1972, 1976, 1977, 1985, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2005), volleyball, basketball, handball, floorball or tennis
- We have some succesful sportsmen
- javelin - Jan Železný or Barbora Špotáková
- decathlon - Roman Šebrle
- cross-country skiing - Kateřina Neumannová
- speed skating - Martina Sáblíková
- down-hill skiing - Šárka Záhrobská and many others
- Original sports - Czech handball, kickball (sometimes called football tennis).
- People in the Czech Republic like especially watching for sports (either at home or in restaurants and sports bars). Not everybody does sports. One of the reasons is that there aren't many sports facilities in our country, such as gymnasiums, stadiums, playgrounds, or fitnesses.
The Olympic Games
- Were already held in ancient Greece (ideal of an all-round developed person)
- Pierre de Coubertin renewed them in 1896 and they take place every four years (except wars).
- Since 1924 there are two parts to the games - winter and summer. Now they alternate once every two years.
Summer Olympic Games
- 1896 Athens (Greece)
- 1900 Paris (France)
- 1904 Saint Louis (USA)
- 1908 London (UK)
- 1912 Stockholm (Sweden)
- 1916 no
- 1920 Antwerp (Belgium)
- 1924 Paris (France
- 1928 Amsterdam (Netherlands)
- 1932 Los Angeles (USA)
- 1936 Berlin (Germany)
- 1940 no
- 1944 no
- 1948 London (UK)
- 1952 Helsinki (Finland)
- 1956 Melbourne (Australia)
- 1960 Rome (Italy)
- 1964 Tokyo (Japan)
- 1968 Mexico City (Mexico)
- 1972 Munich (Germany)
- 1976 Montreal (Canada)
- 1980 Moscow (USSR)
- 1984 Los Angeles (USA)
- 1988 Seoul (South Korea)
- 1992 Barcelona (Spain)
- 1996 Atlanta (USA)
- 2000 Sydney (Australia)
- 2004 Athens (Greece)
- 2008 Beijing (China)
- 2012 London (UK)
Winter Olympic Games
- 1924 Chamonix (France)
- 1928 St. Moritz (Switzerland)
- 1932 Lake Placid (USA)
- 1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)
- 1948 St. Moritz (Switzerland)
- 1952 Oslo (Norway)
- 1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo (Italy)
- 1960 Squaw Valley (USA)
- 1964 Innsbruck (Austria)
- 1968 Grenoble (France)
- 1972 Sapporo (Japan)
- 1976 Innsbruck (Austria)
- 1980 Lake Placid (USA)
- 1984 Sarajevo (Yugoslavia)
- 1988 Calgary (Canada)
- 1992 Albertville (France)
- 1994 Lillehammer (Norway)
- 1998 Nagano (Japan)
- 2002 Salt Lake City (USA)
- 2006 Turin (Italy)
- 2010 Vancouver (Canada)
Baron De Coubertin: The important thing in the Olympic Games is not winning but taking part.
Olympic symbols - a flag - five Olympic circles in white field = the symbol of union of five continents: Europe (blue), Africa (black), America (red), Asia (yellow) and Australia (green). Other symbols are: white dove of peace, olympic anthem and olympic fire which is fired in Olympia in Greece.
- Team sports competitions - leagues which are held during the year and have several rounds
- world (sometimes called World Cup - e.g. Football World Cup)
- They can be held every year (ice hockey), every two years (athletics) or every four years (fotball)
Sports: football, baseball (was developed in the mid-19th century from the English game of "rounder"), volleyball, handball, basketball (was invented in 1891 by a Massachusetts physical education teacher called James Naismith), rugby, bandy hockey, golf, tennis, table tennis, cycling, track cycling, walking, down hill skiing, cross country skiing, shooting, boxing, judo, swimming, yachting, windsurfing, horse racing, water skiing, rowing, jump dive, water polo, skating, athletics, badminton, lacrosse, mountaineering, fishing, weight lifting, wrestling, fencing, archery, billiards, roller skating, car racing, gliding, aerobatics, gymnastics
Division of sports: outdoor and indoor sports, summer, winter and all-year sports, adrenalin sports, team sports - games and others.